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It is estimated that more than 230 million people in India are above age of 50. This population is at risk of developing osteoporosis and complications related to it. It can be minimized by proper care and treatment.

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes a loss of bone density that results in bones being fragile and more vulnerable to fractures.

It is seen commonly in advanced age, more common in females than males.

Types of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is usually classified into primary osteoporosis and secondary osteoporosis.

  • Primary osteoporosis is further sub classified as
    Post menopausal osteoporosis – Seen commonly in females of 5th and 6th decade. Osteoporosis develops due to lack of estrogen at menopause.
    Senile osteoporosis – It is seen in elderly. More common in females.
  • Secondary osteoporosis develops due to underlying medical condition or medications. The loss of bone mass occurs due to the imbalance between the production of new bone and the loss of old bone, leading to lower bone turnover rate.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Osteoporosis usually doesn’t have symptoms. Most of patients don’t know about it until fracture happens. Hip, spine and wrists are commonly affected.

It is diagnosed by Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DEXA Scan).

Prevention and Treatment

  • Healthy and balanced diet
  • Regular physical exercises
  • Sunlight exposure
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • Regular periodic evaluation of susceptible individuals
  • Avoidance of smoking and tobacco
  • Prevention of falls minimizes the complications


In addition to all above measures medications can be started which help in minimizing bone loss and improvement of BMD.

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